Basic Attention Token (BAT)

BAT is a blockchain-based system for tracking media consumers' time and attention on websites using the Brave web browser. Built on Ethereum, its goal is to efficiently distribute advertising money between advertisers, publishers, and readers of online marketing content and ads.


There is no official definition of biohacking as it is a very broad concept. It ranges from people that drink certain foods in order to improve their health or performance, or people that have chips implanted in their body, to people that use at-home DNA analysis kits. Biohackers often associate themselves with biopunk, transhumanism or techno-progressivism. Most biohackers are focused on improving their physical or mental performance and general wellbeing.


A biosensor is a device that measures biological or chemical reactions by generating signals proportional to the concentration of an analyte in the reaction.

Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs)

A brain-computer interface is a computer-based system that acquires brain signals, analyses them, and translates them into commands that are relayed to an output device to carry out a desired action. BCIs can be used as an assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative technology to monitor brain activity and translate specific signal features that reflect a person's intent into commands that operate any device.

Compute-To-Data (C2D)

Compute-to-data provides a model of exchanging data while preserving data privacy by allowing data consumers to run compute jobs on the data (which can be stored on local servers, on existing cloud providers, or on a decentralised file system such as IPFS) to train AI models. Rather than having the data sent to where the algorithm runs, the algorithm runs where the data is. This removes the need to consider the current tradeoffs between sharing data and protecting data.

Consensus mechanism

Consensus mechanisms (also known as consensus protocols or consensus algorithms) allow distributed systems (networks of computers) to work together and stay secure.

For decades, these mechanisms have been used to establish consensus among database nodes, application servers, and other enterprise infrastructure. In recent years, new consensus mechanisms have been invented to allow crypto-economic systems to agree on the state of the network.

A consensus mechanism in a crypto-economic system also helps prevent certain kinds of economic attacks. In theory, an attacker can compromise consensus by controlling 51% of the network. Consensus mechanisms are designed to make this "51% attack" unfeasible. Different mechanisms are engineered to solve this security problem in different ways.

Data obfuscation

Data masking or data obfuscation is the process of modifying sensitive data in such a way that it is of no or little value to unauthorised intruders while still being usable by software or authorised personnel.

Data tokens

Data tokens wrap data services in fungible crypto tokens (e.g. Ocean Protocol uses Ethereum's industry-standard ERC20 tokens). This enables data wallets, data exchanges, and data co-ops by leveraging crypto wallets, exchanges, and other decentralized finance (DeFi) tools.

Digital twin

A digital twin is a virtual representation that serves as the real-time digital counterpart of a physical object or process. We would like to extend this definition to include human digital twin's.

Electroencephalography (EEG)

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a method to record an electrogram (an electrical recording of an organ such as the brain and heart) of the electrical activity on the scalp that has been shown to represent the macroscopic activity of the surface layer of the brain underneath. It is typically non-invasive, with the electrodes placed along the scalp. Electrocorticography, involving invasive electrodes, is sometimes called intracranial EEG.

Human-Computer Interaction

Human-computer interaction (HCI) focuses on the design of computer technology and, in particular, the interaction between humans (the users) and computers. While initially concerned with computers, HCI has since expanded to cover almost all forms of information technology design.

Proprietary algorithms

Proprietary algorithms that solve specific problems that translate into actions are the secret sauce of successful organizations in the future.

Public key cryptography

Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is a cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys. Each pair consists of a public key (which may be known to others) and a private key (which may not be known by anyone except the owner). The generation of such key pairs depends on cryptographic algorithms which are based on mathematical problems termed one-way functions. Effective security requires keeping the private key private; the public key can be openly distributed without compromising security.

Tokenised rewards

Tokenised rewards issued on the blockchain can be transferable, tradable and composable. Unlike their ancestors, specific tokens for different types of users can be issued. Using tokenised rewards makes it easier for the user to receive a reward compared to regular centralised solutions.

Wearable devices

Wearable devices are products controlled by electronic components and software that can be incorporated into clothing or worn on the body like accessories.


Web3 marketplaces

The core principle of web3 marketplaces is that instead of being investor-owned and governed (web2), they are user-owned and governed.

Web2 platforms are often associated with ‘winner-takes-all’ dynamics where a single firm concentrates market value and capture.

The shared ownership of market infrastructure in Web3 combined with minimal extraction during market governance by the protocol (minimally extractive protocols) leads to a ‘winners-share-all’ dynamic.

Read this interesting blog for some more insights on how web3 unbundles marketplaces.

Zero-sum game

Zero-sum is a situation in game theory in which one person's gain is equivalent to another's loss, so the net change in wealth or benefit is zero.

In terms of how this relates to centralised platforms, this relates to the predictable life cycle in terms of these platforms' relationships with network participants - at first, they do everything they can to recruit users and third-party contributors like creators, developers, and businesses. This strengthens their network effect.

As platforms move up the adoption curve, their power over users and third parties steadily grows. When they hit the top of the curve, their relationships with network participants change from positive-sum to zero-sum. To continue growing requires extracting data from users and competing with (former) partners.

Read this blog which discusses this in more detail.

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